Adverb Clause Reductions with ‘‘After”
Another way to make a reduction is with the subordinate conjunction “after”:
- Remove the subordinate conjunction
- Add the gerund “having”
- Change the main verb into the past participle form
Keep in mind that the subject in the Adverb clause and the subject in the main clause MUST be the same.
Look at these examples:
A fter Lenin took power, he established a secret police –>Having taken power, Lenin established a secret police.
After you get the letter, please call me. –> Having gotten the letter, please call me.
After you finish part 1, you can go on to part 2. –> Having finished part 1, you can go on to part 2.
However, these clauses cannot be reduced because the subjects of the two clauses are different.
After the Bolslwvik revolution in the Russian empire, many western countries were nervous.
After the test finished, he went home.
Pattern to look for:
When a sentence begins with “having” + past participle, it is an adverb clause reduction which means “after”
Re-write these sentences, making reductions where possible.
- After he attended a meeting of the communist party, Lenin decided to take control,
- After he established control, Stalin started executing people who disagreed.
- After the civil war finished, many people did not believe the communists.
- After Lenin died, Stalin took control of the communist party.
- After they won the civil war, the communists changed their philosophy.
- After the civil war finished, there was a lot of work to do.
- After Lenin took control, he established a sccrct policc.
- After Lenin died, there was a struggle for power.
- After Stalin took power, he made many political changes.
- After Stalin took power, he executed Leon Trotsky.